Often, use-cases are reserved for the requirements gathering phase of a marketing technology project. The strategy has already been developed; the platform selected, bought, and paid for; the design and branding wheels in motion; and then a technical project manager starts talking about what happens when a visitor arrives on the web portal and clicks the next button. It’s discrete, as if the visitor just appeared there magically — it’s self-contained, as if the interaction didn’t take place in the context of a broader marketing campaign — and it might just be too late in the process to avoid costly rework and/or a less than elegant implementation of the vision.
You might even have complex diagrams and detailed text outlining some special content for returning visitors posted on the site…
In my experience, the importance of use-cases and the supporting involvement of a technical specialist is under-represented in the strategy and planning phases of a project because other concepts are more dominant. Strategy and planning is largely the providence of marketing personas, research and survey results, focus groups, engagement maps, customer journeys, and, if a technology platform is involved, a long list of features required. Ironically, while these materials can be quite a bit more detailed and polished than a simple use-case, that’s one of the reasons things can fall through the cracks.
I’m the first person to admit that questions like this might not be as exciting as white-boarding a blue-sky customer journey, but they can be equally important…
For example, one of your target personas might be a returning customer, and your engagement map probably notes they are going to receive a personalized email prompting them to visit the campaign portal. There could be complex diagrams detailing the chain of interactions, and detailed text outlining some special content for returning visitors posted on the site, but what you probably won’t have is something that leads to a plain language description of how the different systems you are using — CRM, CMS, MA or even BI — are supporting a coherent journey and the associated result metrics. That description starts with a use-case, especially in the capable hands of a technical project manager, that reads something as simple as this:
- An existing customer received a personalized email and is driven to a portal with custom messaging
A marketing strategist might find that redundant to a (poor draft) of a marketing persona plus an engagement map, but a technical project manager will immediately begin asking questions such as the following:
- What is the source of the customer record? The organization’s CRM or a separate list?
- What content in the email is personalized? Is the content personalized based on the individual customer’s record or simply the fact that they are a customer?
- What content on the web portal is personalized, and is it specific to the customer themselves? What is the source of that customization, the CRM or something stored in an eCommerce Application?
- Is there a persistent user account? Should we try to recognize returning customers if they arrive on the site directly outside of the email? If so, how so?
- If the user is prompted to take an action, who receives the transaction and acts on it?
I’m the first person to admit that questions like this might not be as exciting as white-boarding a blue-sky customer journey, but they can be equally important to determining whether or not the strategy envisioned can be accomplished with your existing technology and staff. They can also help ensure an elegant end-user experience, and that actions taken by customers will be acted upon and real ROI will be generated. Generally speaking, the strategic use of use-cases can help you get ahead of the curve in the following ways:
- Exploring a broader range of ideas. Journeys, engagement maps, etc. are usually complicated, detailed documents, often passed through the hands of a strategist, content creator, and designer. Use-cases are simple text, easy to create, and can help expand the scope of the strategic ground covered by the ideation sessions.
- Ensuring that the “how” of a project is discussed along with the “what” and the “why.” The goal here is not to limit your ideation process or reduce the scope of your marketing technology dreams, but rather to enforce a holistic approach that includes all relevant aspects of an implementation, and increase awareness of any ideas that might require changes to your infrastructure.
- Engage and expand a broader team from the beginning. The complexity of modern marketing technology projects requires a wider, more diverse mix of skills than ever before, and while we don’t want to burn through hours unnecessarily, we do want to ensure ownership is shared by all members involved, and time spent in the planning phases usually results in less time during implementation.
- Focus on action instead of reaction. This item is primarily in reference to the ubiquitous user requirement lists that generally govern platform selection. These requirements tend to be developed in a very passive voice that fails to capture both the action being performed and its relative importance. Use-cases can help change that dynamic by focusing on the output and potentially highlighting unmet needs.
- Identify testing needs sooner rather than later. Use-cases are a great start towards user acceptance testing, and understanding the behaviors expected early in the process will help your technical team members develop thorough quality assurance cases and improve the overall delivery.
Ultimately, use-cases are a very engaging way to brainstorm and develop complex ideas. Simply put, their simplicity tends to be their strength: They are easy to create, evolve, update, re-imagine and reinvent. They don’t require fancy presentation or large teams to support, they are easy for both technical and non-technical users to understand, and while they focus on “what” happens, they help illuminate the “how” in an integrated fashion that produces real results.
If you give them a try early and often, I don’t think you’ll be disappointed in the results. They can also help with a technical RFP process, a topic we will revisit in an upcoming post. In the meantime, happy use-case creating.